Grade Ten: World History, Culture, and Geography: The Modern World
Students in grade ten studying the life, work, and philosophy of César E.
Chávez will learn about the historical developments of many of the
ideas and philosophy of Chávez, especially the evolution of democratic principles.
Students will also learn about Chávez’s commitment to social change
through nonviolent tactics modeled after Gandhi.
Grade Ten: History-Social Science Framework
Students in grade ten will complete their study of world history focusing on
modern history and on the unresolved problems of the modern world. Students
will review the rise of the democratic ideal of equality, justice under the law,
and freedom. During the industrial revolution, students will examine the causes
of the development of labor unions. They will examine the rise of imperialism
and colonialism using India as a case study, and the important roles of
Mohandas K. Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, and Louis Mountbatten in preparing India
for self-government. (Pp. 120-130)
Grade Ten: History-Social Science Standards
Standard 10.2 Students compare and contrast the Glorious Revolution of England,
the American Revolution, and the French Revolution, and their enduring effects
worldwide on the political expectations for self-government and individual liberty.
10.2.2 List the principles of the Magna Carta, the English Bill of
Rights (1689), the American Declaration of Independence (1776), the French
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen (1789), and the U.S. Bill
of Rights (1791).
The Industrial Revolution and the Formation of Unions
- Students will identify the reasons why unions are formed
and specifically why the United Farm Workers (UFW) was formed.
Students will apply these reasons to a variety of working situations in their area.
Students will compare and contrast why unions started during the industrial revolution
and why César E. Chávez started the UFW.
Fasting and Politics
- Students will identify the term Satyagraha and explain how Gandhi used it.
Compare and contrast Gandhi’s reasons and use of fasting with Chávez’s.
Students will evaluate the effectiveness of using the fast to gain political awareness.
Nelson Mandela and César E. Chávez and Nonviolence
- Students will trace the history of the African National Congress (ANC) and compare it with the history
of the UFW. Students will compare and contrast the attitudes of César E.
Chávez and Nelson Mandela toward violence and civil rights. After
comparing and contrasting these attitudes, students will evaluate the
effectiveness of both methods.
Grade Eleven: United States History and Geography
Students in grade eleven can use the life and work of César E. Chávez as a
case study to trace the major historical events and eras of the twentieth century.
Students can begin a study of César E. Chávez and his family as it
was at the beginning of twentieth century. Students will learn about the
Chávez family as they struggled to acquire a farm in Arizona, farm,
manage the family businesses, and raise a family that would include César in 1928.
Students will learn that Chávez and his family experienced a fate in
common with thousands of other migrants who faced the harsh reality of the
Great Depression, the drought, and the large-scale migration to California by
families seeking work. During the 1940s, Chávez, like many other young men,
served his country by joining the Navy near the end of World War II.
Upon his return home from service, Chávez had difficulty finding work to
support a wife and family. Chávez experienced racism, prejudice, and
discrimination like many men and women of color including Mexican and Asian Americans.
During the 1950s, César Chávez met Fred Ross and established
community service organizations working to improve the living conditions of
Hispanics and others living in poverty stricken areas. His work eventually lead
him to establishing the United Farm Workers, a movement that used nonviolent tactics,
educated the general public about the working conditions in agriculture, and worked
to improve the lives of farm workers. Chávez’s leadership in the civil
rights movement placed him in an influential position in California politics
and the nation. His commitment to social change, justice, equality, and
humanity inspired a generation of diverse and multi-racial leaders. His work
to improve the lives of the needy and disposed and those forgotten by society
spread beyond the borders of California and the United States to near and distant
countries throughout the world. César E. Chávez was an ordinary man
who accomplished extraordinary achievements. His lifetime spanned one of the
most dynamic periods in the history of the United States. Thus, it can serve as
a focal point, at any one point in time, to illustrate the condition of ordinary
citizens in America during the twentieth century.
Grade Eleven: History-Social Science Framework
Students in this grade study the history and development of United States
from the end of the nineteenth century to the present. Students will study,
in an in-depth manner, The Great Depression, the civil
rights movement in the postwar era, American society in the
post war era, and the United States in recent times.
Within these units of study, students will pay special attention to the rise
of industry and the development of labor unions, unwise agricultural
practices, new opportunities for minorities and unskilled workers following
World War II, and the beginnings of the modern civil rights movement.
The success of the black civil rights movement encouraged other groups —
including women, Hispanics, Native Americans, Asians, Pacific Islanders,
and individuals with disabilities — in their campaigns for legislative
and judicial recognition of their civil equality. Students will study how
César E. Chávez and the United Farm Workers movement used
nonviolent tactics, educated the general public about the working in
agriculture, and endeavored to improve the lives of farm workers.
Major events in the development of all these movements and their consequences
will be noted. Students will also read about the beginning for the environmental
movement in the 1960s and the environmental protection laws that were passed.
Students, after studying modern American history, will be able to understand
how the ideas and events of the past shape the institutions and debates of
contemporary American. Students will recognize that our democratic political
system depends on them — as educated citizens — to survive and
prosper. (Pp. 136-147)
Grade Eleven History-Social Science Standards
Standard 11.1 Students analyze the significant events in the founding of
the nation and its attempts to realize the philosophy of government described in
the Declaration of Independence.
11.1.4 Examine the effects of the Civil War and reconstruction and
of the industrial revolution, including demographic shifts and the emergence
in the late nineteenth century of the United States as a world power.
11.3.4 Discuss the expanding religious pluralism in the United States
and California that resulted from large-scale immigration in the twentieth century.
Standard 11.6 Students analyze the different explanations for the Great Depression
and how the new deal fundamentally changed the role of the federal government.
11.6.2 Understand the explanations of the principal causes of the
Great Depression and the steps taken by the Federal Reserve, Congress, and
Presidents Herbert Hoover and Franklin Delano Roosevelt to combat the economic
11.6.3 Discuss the human toll of the depression, natural disasters,
and unwise agricultural practices and their effects on the depopulation of
rural regions and on political movements of the left and right, with particular
attention to the dust bowl refugees and their social and economic impacts in California.
11.6.4 Analyze the effects of, and the controversies arising from,
new deal economic policies and the expanded role of the federal government
in society and the economy since the 1930s (e.g., Works Progress Administration,
Social Security, National Labor Relations Board, farm programs, regional
development policies, and energy development projects such as the Tennessee
Valley Authority, California Central Valley Project, and Bonneville Dam).
11.6.5 Trace the advances and retreats of organized labor, from the
creation of the American Federation of Labor and the Congress of Industrial
Organizations to current issues of a post-industrial, multinational economy,
including the United Farm Workers in California.
11.7.5 Discuss the constitutional issues and impact of events on the
U.S. home front, including the internment of Japanese Americans (e.g.,
Fred Korematsu v. United States of America) and the restrictions on German and
Italian resident aliens; the response of the administration to Hitler’s
atrocities against Jews and other groups; the roles of women in military production;
and the roles and growing political demands of African Americans.
Standard 11.8 Students analyze the economic boom and social transformation of
post-World War II America.
11.8.2 Describe the significance of Mexican immigration and its
relationship to the agricultural economy, especially in California.
11.8.4 Analyze new federal government spending on defense, welfare,
interest on the national debt, and federal and state spending on education,
including the California Master Plan.
11.8.6 Discuss the diverse environmental regions of North America,
their relationship to local economies, and the origins and prospects of
environmental problems in those regions.
11.8.7 Describe the effects on society and the economy of technological
developments since 1945, including the computer revolution, changes in communication,
advances in medicine, and improvements in agricultural technology.
11.9.7 Examine relations between the United States and Mexico in
the twentieth century, including key economic, political, immigration, and
Standard 11.10 Students analyze the development of federal civil rights and
11.10.1 Explain how demands of African Americans helped produce a
stimulus for civil rights, including President Roosevelt’s ban on racial
discrimination in defense industries in 1941, and how African Americans’
service in World War II produced a stimulus for President Truman’s decision
to end segregation in the armed forces in 1948.
11.10.2 Examine and analyze the key events, policies, and court cases
in the evolution of civil rights, including, Dred Scott v. Stanford, Plessy v.
Ferguson, Brown v. Board of Education, Regents of the University of California v.
Bakke, and California Proposition 209.
11.10.5 Discuss the diffusion of the civil rights movement of African
Americans from the churches of the rural south and the urban north, including
the resistance to racial desegregation in Little Rock and Birmingham, and how
the advances influenced the agenda, strategies, and effectiveness of the
quests of Native Americans, Asian Americans, and Hispanic Americans for
civil rights and equal opportunities.
Standard 11.11 Students analyze the major social problems and domestic policy
issues in contemporary American society.
11.11.1 Discuss the reasons for the nation's changing immigration
policy, with emphasis on how the Immigration Act of 1965 and successor acts
have transformed American society.
11.11.5 Trace the impact of, need for, and controversies associated
with environmental conservation, expansion of the National Park System, and
the development of environmental protection laws, with particular attention
to the interaction between environmental protection advocates and property
11.11.6 Analyze the persistence of poverty and how different analyses
of this issue influence welfare reform, health insurance reform, and other
11.11.7 Explain how the federal, state, and local governments have
responded to demographic and social changes such as population shifts to the
suburbs, racial concentrations in the cities, frostbelt-to-sunbelt migration,
international migration, decline of family farms, increases in out-of-wedlock
births, and drug abuse.
- Lesson 1
César E. Chávez Biography Boards
- Students will be able to explain why César E. Chávez must be
considered a multidimensional man and they will he able to discuss his contributions
to American society.
- Lesson 2
Conquering Goliath César E. Chávez at the Beginning
- Students will explain the plight of farm workers, the role of community-based
organizations, the need to protect worker rights, the role of government in
enacting and enforcing the law, and how peaceful, nonviolent change is possible.
César E. Chávez, Organizes the Farm Workers Association Act I,
Scene I "The House Meeting"
- Students will explain the use of house meetings as an organizing technique and
the dedication, perseverance and sacrifice that César E. Chávez exhibited
in founding the National Farm Workers Association. They will also identify the problems
of California's farm workers and the achievements of the United Farm Workers Union.
César E. Chávez and the Great Depression
- Students will learn that César E. Chávez and his family experienced
a common fate with thousands of Americans who suffered through and recovered from the
Great Depression, but whose lives were forever altered because of their experiences.
El Malcriado, Voice of the Farm Workers (Analyzing editorial cartoons)
- Students will be able to analyze editorial cartoons and understand their
importance in communicating ideas. They will also have a better appreciation
for the plight of the farm workers.
Grade Twelve: Principles of American Democracy
Students in grade twelve studying the life and work of César E. Chávez
will see the direct relationship between his work and political philosophy and the
political and legal system in the United States. Students will examine how
Chávez’s ideas and actions are a blueprint for active citizenry.
Grade Twelve History-Social Science Standards
Standard 12.2 Students evaluate, and take and defend positions on the
scope and limits of rights and obligations as democratic citizens, the
relationships among them, and how they are secured.
12.2.1 Discuss the meaning and importance of each of the rights guaranteed
under the Bill of Rights and how each is secured (e.g., freedom of religion,
speech, press, assembly, petition, privacy).
12.2.2 Explain how economic rights are secured and their importance
to the individual and to society (e.g., the right to acquire, use, transfer,
and dispose of property; right to choose one’s work; right to join or not
join labor unions; copyright and patent).
12.2.3 Discuss the individual’s legal obligations to obey the law,
serve as a juror, and pay taxes.
12.2.4 Understand the obligations of civic-mindedness, including voting,
being informed on civic issues, volunteering and performing public service, and
serving in the military or alternative service.
12.2.5 Describe the reciprocity between rights and obligations; that is,
why enjoyment of one’s rights entails respect for the rights of others.
12.2.6 Explain how one becomes a citizen of the United States, including
the process of naturalization (e.g., literacy, language, and other requirements).
Grade Twelve: Principles of Economic
Students in grade twelve studying César E. Chávez will see that many
of the conflicts and issues for which he fought had economic consequences.
Chávez’s fight against the use of pesticides is an example that
pitted benefit of increased food production against the cost of human health.
Many of his union demands dealt with issues of labor allocation, wages,
and business cost and benefits in a market society.
Grade Twelve History-Social Science Standards
Standard 12.1 Students understand common economic terms and concepts, and
12.1.2 Explain the opportunity cost and marginal benefit and marginal cost.
12.1.4 Evaluate the role of private property as an incentive in conserving
and improving scarce resources, including renewable and nonrenewable natural resources.
12.1.5 Analyze the role of a market economy in establishing and preserving
political and personal liberty (e.g., through the works of Adam Smith).
Standard 12.2 Students analyze the elements of America's market economy in a
12.2.1 Understand the relationship of the concept of incentives to
the law of supply, and the relationship of the concept of incentives and
substitutes to the law of demand.
12.2.3 Explain the roles of property rights, competition, and profit
in a market economy.
12.2.4 Explain how prices reflect the relative scarcity of goods and
services and perform the allocative function in a market economy.
12.2.10 Discuss the economic principles that guide the location of
agricultural production and industry and the spatial distribution of transportation
and retail facilities.
Agricultural Workers and Their Wages 1910-1995
- Students will understand that the wages of agricultural workers have been
affected by war, depression, natural disasters, "guest workers", inflation,
technological changes, government action, international trade, and unionization.